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Abbreviation Term
AAA Authentication, authorization, and accounting
Authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) is a term for a framework for intelligently controlling access to computer resources, enforcing policies, auditing usage, and providing the information necessary to bill for services. These combined processes are considered important for effective network management and security. Authentication, authorization, and accounting services are often provided by a dedicated AAA server, a program that performs these functions. A current standard by which network access servers interface with the AAA server is the Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS).
ACF2 Access Control Facility
ACF2 (more formally, CA-ACF2; the ACF stands for Access Control Facility) is a set of programs from Computer Associates that enable security on mainframes. ACF2 prevents accidental or deliberate modification, corruption, mutilation, deletion, or viral infection of files. With ACF2, access to a system is denied to unauthorized personnel. Any authorized or unauthorized attempt to gain access is logged. System status can be monitored on a continuous basis, and a permanent usage log can be created. The logging feature, besides helping to identify potential intruders, makes it possible to identify and analyze changes and trends in the use of the system. Settings can be changed on a moment's notice, according to current or anticipated changes in the security or business requirements of the organization using the system.
ACH Automated Clearing House
Automated Clearing House (ACH) is a secure payment transfer system that connects all U.S. financial institutions. The ACH network acts as the central clearing facility for all Electronic Fund Transfer (EFT) transactions that occur nationwide, representing a crucial link in the national banking system. It is here that payments linger in something akin to a holding pattern while awaiting clearance for their final banking destination. Scores of financial institutions transmit or receive ACH entries through ACH operators such as the American Clearing House Association, the Federal Reserve, the Electronic Payments Network, and Visa.
ACL access control list
An access control list (ACL) is a table that tells a computer operating system which access rights each user has to a particular system object, such as a file directory or individual file. Each object has a security attribute that identifies its access control list. The list has an entry for each system user with access privileges. The most common privileges include the ability to read a file (or all the files in a directory), to write to the file or files, and to execute the file (if it is an executable file, or program). Microsoft Windows NT/2000, Novell's NetWare, Digital's OpenVMS, and Unix-based systems are among the operating systems that use access control lists. The list is implemented differently by each operating system.
ActiveX is the name Microsoft has given to a set of "strategic" object-oriented programming technologies and tools. The main technology is the Component Object Model (COM). Used in a network with a directory and additional support, COM becomes the Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM). The main thing that you create when writing a program to run in the ActiveX environment is a component, a self-sufficient program that can be run anywhere in your ActiveX network (currently a network consisting of Windows and Macintosh systems). This component is known as an ActiveX control. ActiveX is Microsoft's answer to the Java technology from Sun Microsystems. An ActiveX control is roughly equivalent to a Java applet.
AES Advanced Encryption Standard
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) was introduced in 2000 after a long search by NIST for an encryption standard that would be hard to break, inexpensive to use, easy to implement and would work on both hardware and software. The algorithm to be chosen also had to be made available to the public without royalty fees. After years of testing and multiple comment cycles, the Rijndael algorithm, written by two Belgium cryptographers, was adopted as the AES and was published as FIPS 192. There is an inherent weakness in a symmetric key process because the key has to be transferred from the sender to the receiver as well as the encrypted text. Frequently, AES is used as part of a set of encryption tools where an asymmetric encryption method is used to transfer the key.
AFIS Automated Fingerprint Identification System
The Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) is a biometric identification (ID) methodology that uses digital imaging technology to obtain, store, and analyze fingerprint data. The AFIS was originally used by the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in criminal cases. Lately, it has gained favor for general identification and fraud prevention. Fingerprinting, as a form of personal identification, is a refined methodology that is proven in practice and accepted in courts of law. AFIS itself has been around for more than 25 years. Recently, a more advanced form of AFIS uses a process called plain-impression live scanning. Several vendors offer AFIS equipment and programs.
APWG Anti-Phishing Working Group
The Anti-Phishing Working Group (APWG) is an international membership organization that seeks to eliminate fraud based on attacks from phishing and e-mail spoofing. These attacks hurt legitimate businesses as the attackers fraudulently use the identity of an established organization in their attack. And it hurts the victims who provide authentication information, thinking they are dealing with a trusted entity. Through its web site, APWG provides information about current and historic attacks and provides a location for people to report new ones, sharing information with law enforcement when it's applicable. The organization also works on prevention efforts, testing prevention tools and techniques; and educating people about ways to avoid being victimized. It offers a news feed and white papers as well as solid advice. ;
AS2 Applicability Statement 2
AS2 (Applicability Statement 2) is a specification for Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) between businesses using the Internet's Web page protocol, the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). The specification is an extension of the earlier version, Applicability Statement 1 (AS1). Both specifications were created by EDI over the Internet (EDIINT), a working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) that develops secure and reliable business communications standards.
AUP acceptable use policy
An acceptable use policy (AUP) is a policy that a user must agree to follow in order to be provided with access to a network or to the Internet. It is common practice for many businesses and educational facilities to require that employees or students sign an acceptable use policy before being granted a network ID.
AVED AntiVirus Emergency Discussion list
A mailing list for professional antivirus researchers allowing them to alert other researchers to emerging or ongoing 'crisis' or 'emergency' virus events. These may be localized to a geographic or language-based region or known to be approaching a wordlwide scale. It also acts as a forum for these researchers to discuss such events, what precursors count as sufficient grounds to make posting alerts to users about a newly discovered virus and at what point involving the news media seems appropriate. Aside from the discussion list, another list facilitates the secure distribution of emergency samples and members of the list are expected to send samples of any viruses the organizations they work for consider worthy of raising public warnings about. Senior Computer Associates virus analysis staff are represented on the AVED mailing lists and board.